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Q.  Why does LANDFIRE use VDDT?

Although other quantitative state-and-transition models exist, VDDT (Beukema and others 2003) was selected as the model of choice for nationally consistent fire and fuel projects because it is:

Beukema, S.J.; Kurz, W. A.; Pinkham, C.B.; Milosheva, K.; Frid, L. 2003. Vegetation Dynamics development tool, User.s Guide, Version 4.4c. Prepared by ESSA Technologies Ltd., Vancouver, BC. 239 p. [Online.] Available:

Keane, R.E.; Parsons, R.; Hessburg, P. 2002. Estimating historical range and variation of landscape patch dynamics: limitations of the simulation approach. Ecological Modeling. 151: 29-49.


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